Guar gum, also called guaran, is extracted from the seed of the leguminous shrub Cyamopsis Tetragonolobus, which is grown in the arid and semi-arid regions of Sindh and the Punjab, KPK and Baluchistan.
The guar seed is spherical-shaped with a diameter of approximately 8mm. Galactomannan is the essential ingredient of Guar that gives it unique thickening, binding and stabilizing properties and its extraction is the main objective of the production process.
Guar or Cluster bean is a drought-tolerant annual legume that was introduced into the United States from India in 1903. The major world suppliers are India, Pakistan with smaller acreages in United States, Australia and Africa.
Unlike the seed of other legumes, the guar bean has a larger endosperm. This spherical-shaped endosperm contains a significant amount of galactomannan gum, which forms a viscous gel in cold water. Guar gum is the primary marketable product of the plant.
Like other legumes, guar is an excellent soil-building crop with respect to available Nitrogen.
After processing, guar seed is converted to guar split. Guar split is a non-ionic polysaccharide galacomannan. Guar refined split is mechanically separated from guar seed, which yields 27-30% of refined split.
Guar beans are harvested and dried following the growing season. The beans are shelled from the pods and the germ and hull removed. The resultant split is converted into powder; the powder is then graded by quality. The refined guar split is produced when the fine layer of fibrous material is removed and separated from the endosperm halves of husk by polishing. Guar refined split is basic raw material for manufacturing guar gum powder.
Guar split is then converted to fine quality Guar Gum, which has extensive usage in various food products such as Bakery products, Beverages, Canned foods, Confectionery, Cheese, Dairy products, Gravies and Soups, Ice creams, Ketchups, Mayonnaise, Pharmaceuticals, Fish Feed and Pet Food and also has industrial application in Adhesives, Cosmetics, Fire fighting foams, Liquid Soaps, Lotions, Lubricants, Mining, Oil and Gas Exploration, Paper Industry, Shampoos, Textile , Toiletries and Tooth Pastes etc.
Guar gum is used in oil well fracturing, oil well stimulation, mud drilling and shale gas fracturing.
Its by-product, Guar meal is used as a nutritional supplement for animal, poultry and cattle feed.
Guar products have an effective shelf life of two years.
Guar growing areas in Pakistan:
- Thar, UmerKot, Dadu, Nagar Parker Naukot and Tharparkar Districts in Sindh province,
- Layyah, Bhakkar, Mianwali and Khushab in the Punjab province,
- Pezzu, Lakki Marwat and D.I.Khan in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province,
- Lasbela and Makran in Baluchistan province.